iron-metal-flow

Iron & Metallurgy

Iron Mines

Iron ores were usually open pits, involving mostly rural unspecialized work, performed by anyone and everywhere… All iron mines are new.

Scandinavia

Dalarna mines (the only one apart from Basque with important excedent). Dalarna called Järnberaland ‘iron-bearing country’ [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Mor (Jrnberaland) · High Medieval · 200% · Scandinavia · Catholic.

Trondheim iron mines (most of the ore apparently comes from the SW, close to Reros) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Gauldala (Gauldalr) · High Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Britannia

Lahn-Dill-Kreis (ativity starts from the 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Wetzlar (Lahndill) · Late Medieval · 75% · Germania · Catholic.

For the Weald region (only known site, the late Tudeley). English ore, not enough to cover its needs
Tonbridge (Weald) · High Medieval · 50% · Britannia · Catholic.

Selected Winchcombe because Gloucester already has a special building… [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Winchcombe (Forest Dean) · High Medieval · 50% · Britannia · Catholic.

Rhuddlan mines mentioned in the Doomsday Book
Wrexham (Rhuddlan) · High Medieval · 25% · Britannia · Catholic.

Germania

Carinthia Iron mines (using Friesach Silver mine to represent them) (start before 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Sankt Veit (Friesach) · Early Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Styria Iron mines (start before 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Leoben (Eisenerz) · Early Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Amberg-Sulzbach region (start before 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Sulzbach (Amberg) · Early Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Amberg-Sulzbach region (start from the 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Abensberg (Kelheim) · High Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Bergisches Land (start from the 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Bergh (Bergisches) · High Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Schwäbisch Hall (start from the 10-11th c.) [Graham-Campbell 2011]
Hall (Schwabisch) · High Medieval · 100% · Germania · Catholic.

Francia

Morvan in Burgundy, selected HRE. Activity starts from the 10-11th c.[Graham-Campbell 2011]
Morvan (Morvan) · Late Medieval · 75% · Germania · Catholic.

Representing iron from Hills of Normandy. Saint-Germain count received £100/year [Pounds 1994]
Argentan (Saintgermain) · High Medieval · 25% · Francia · Catholic.

Forêt d’Othe – Selected Nogent to avoid cloth-producing regions. Exploited late commercially [Pounds 1994]
Nogent (Champagne) · Late Medieval · 50% · Francia · Catholic.

(mainly local source?) [Pounds 1994]
Tarascon (Vicdessos) · Late Medieval · 25% · Francia · Catholic.

For Allevard, above Grenoble (using mine Notre-Dame-de-Mésage). Mainly local source? [Pounds 1994]
Grenoble (Mesage) · Late Medieval · 25% · Francia · Catholic.

Italy

Representing Val di Scalve and Bergamo & Brescia ironwork. £1000/year for HRE emperor [Pounds 1994]
Bergamo (Scalve) · High Medieval · 100% · Italy · Catholic.

Representing Island of Elba, controlled by Pisa [Kedar & Wiesner-Hanks 2015]
Piombino (Elba) · High Medieval · 50% · Italy · Catholic.

Central-East Europe

Represents true iron mining in Štítnik, Rožňava, Dobšina, Medzev and Gelnica. From 13th c., but the traditoinal western/northern “Vásvars” are not included
Gemer (Stitnik) · Late Medieval · 50% · Central-East Europe · Catholic.

Świętokrzyskie Mts. surface deposits exhausted during the 11th c., Cistercians start mining in end-13th c. and beyond [Wrona 2021]
Kielce (Świętokrzyskie) · Late Medieval · 25% · Central-East Europe · Catholic.

Eastern Europe

Imports predominate in Kiev, Novgorod

Metalwork ceases around the Urals with exhaustion of materials (imports predominate)

Iberia & Maghreb

Together with Sweden, the only ones able to export to the whole of Europe
Irun (Irugurutzeta) · High Medieval · 150% · Iberia (Christian) · Catholic.

Late exports from Northern Iberia to England. Much lesser known than Gipuzcoan iron
Oviedo (Uviéu) · Late Medieval · 50% · Iberia (Christian) · Catholic.

Guadiz 8th-12th c. (covers many other sites of the Guadalquivir). Peaked 9th-10th c., [Morony 2019]
Guadiz (Bernite) · Early Medieval · 100% · Iberia (Muslim) · Muwalladi.

Almería 12th-13th c. [Morony 2019]
Almeria (Macael) · High Medieval · 50% · Iberia (Muslim) · Muwalladi.

Exploited 9th-11th c., center of mining and ironwork (Covers later Christian ironwork) [Morony 2019]
Talavera (Los Vascos) · High Medieval · 50% · Iberia (Muslim) · Muwalladi.

Majjanat al-Ma’din. Includes al-Aribus, west of al-Qayrawan, and many others of Tunisia (Majjanat mentioned 9th-10th c., active until Hilali invasion 11th c.) [Morony 2019]
Al-qasrayn (Majjana) · Early Medieval · 75% · Africa · Ash’ari.

(selected copper mine of Ikjan) for iron mines of Bône and the mountain above it. 10th-14th c. [Morony 2019]
Ikjan (Kutama) · High Medieval · 100% · Africa · Ash’ari.

Byzantium

Ironwork in Drava River (Virje, Croatia, 5th-9th c.) show discontinuity even in settlements until 12th, suggesting exhaustion of resources after EMA [Ivančan and Karavidović 2021]

Ironwork in Serbia, same problem after EMA, only starts at the end of the 15th c. – Technologically unavailable in the MA

Chalybian Iron from Kerasoun
Cerasus (Kerasoun) · Early Medieval · 150% · Byzantium · Orthodox.

Iron from Trilision (14th c. – Ottoman). Not really in full use until very late.
Siderokastron (Trilision) · Late Medieval · 50% · Byzantium · Orthodox.

Byzantine Shishmanovo (5th-6th c.) + Bulgarian Samokov (from 14th c.) suggest some degree of continuity in ironworking
Rila (Samokov) · Late Medieval · 50% · Byzantium · Orthodox.

Using silver mines as proxy (includes Armenian iron ores). Cilicia, eventually “the richest source of iron” in 12th c. for the Muslim world [Morony 2019]
Faustinopolis (Loulon) · Late Medieval · 150% · Byzantium · Orthodox.

Middle East

12th-14th c. in mountain above Beirut. Some exported to Egypt [Morony 2019]
Beirut (Beirut) · Late Medieval · 100% · Jerusalem · Ash’ari.

Persia

For Jiruft and Bariz mts. (Kirman) 10th c., Nayriz and Istakhr mts. 9th-10th c. [Morony 2019]
Nariz (Nayriz) · High Medieval · 50% · Jerusalem · Ash’ari.

“Kabul” region – the Hajigak Pass Iron Ores (conflated with the early Panjhir silver mines).
The biggest iron deposit in the region, but not much developed in the MA [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]. Enough to exceed the demands of commerce of Central Asia [Morony 2019]
Parwan (Pandjhir) · High Medieval · 200% · Persia · Ash’ari.

For Osrusana “mountaineous region” [Encyclopaedia Iranica online 2022]
Panjikand (Osrusana) · High Medieval · 100% · Persia · Ash’ari.

For Ferghana iron ores (until 10th c.) [Encyclopaedia Iranica online 2022]
Miyan-rudan (Ferghana) · High Medieval · 50% · Persia · Maturidi.

India

Gwalior, where the hilly region leading south should begin [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]
Gwalior (Gwalior) · Early Medieval · 100% · India (North) · Svetambara.

Hilly region of Somavamsi [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]
Kodalaka (Jabalpur) · Late Medieval · 100% · India (North) · Vaishnavism.

Wootz (“Damascus”) Steel, of great quality, exported to the Middle East

Cutch steel – probably wrought (and mostly traded) from Kutch, but imported frome elsewhere [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]
Kanthakota (Cutch) · Early Medieval · 200% · India (North) · Svetambara.

Cutch steel, originally from Golkonda region. Nirmal is the most likely origin [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]
Nirmal (Golkonda) · High Medieval · 200% · India (South) · Svetambara.

For Mysuru steel [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]
Talakad (Mysuru) · High Medieval · 200% · India (South) · Vaishnavism.

For Malabar steel (assuming the hinterland hilly areas are the productive iron ores) [Raychaudhuri & Habib 1982]
Kovai (Malabar) · High Medieval · 200% · India (South) · Vaishnavism.