Mines are special buildings that can be constructed in specific holdings and yield one or more kinds of ores, which then flow in the trade system.



Stone is used especially as a building material. Stone Base Value The primary sources of stone in a holding are the product of local stone quarries and the likelihood of stone byproduct from each ore mined effectively imported to the county. Stone Quarries (base = +0.1%) Simple Stone Quarries: +3% Shallow Ore Mines: +5% Watermills: …

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Salt exports can be divided into: Salterns Salt mines / saltworks Salt Production Most important producers: Bay of Biscay, Languedoc and Provence (but also present in all coasts, especially for fisheries) Genoese trade for Hyères (Between Toulon and Niece). Famous in NW Europe [Pounds 1994]. 200m cwt/y Genoese trade [Adshead 1992] Grasse · Francia · …

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Alum Mines Phocaea (Phokaia) best known ‘western’ Alum mine. Exploitation started first half 13th c. [Jacoby 2017] Phocaea (Phokaia) · High Medieval · 200% · Byzantium · Orthodox. For Colonna (Koloneia) – best quality. Exploitation started first half 13th c. [Jacoby 2017] Colonea (Koloneia) · Late Medieval · 300% · Byzantium · Orthodox. Transported by …

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Mercury & Salammoniac

Both Mercury and Salammoniac had medicinal uses in the Muslim world, later exported to the West and the East under its influence. Cinnabar ore was also used as dyestuff, whereas Salammoniac could be used (like Alum) in dyeing and leather tanning. Mines Almadén is a renown mercury mine in the Muslim and non-Muslim world. Exported …

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Marble & Alabaster

Mines Marble Mines Famous Carrara marble mines Lucca (Carrara) · Early Medieval · 100% · Italy · Catholic. Attika marble mines Athens (Attika) · Early Medieval · 100% · Byzantium · Orthodox. Belgian limestone Namur (Namur) · Early Medieval · 25% · Germania · Catholic. Belgian limestone Tournai (Tournai) · Early Medieval · 25% · …

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Tin & Zinc

Tin Mines Cornwall and Devon tin mines (almost monopoly in Christian Europe) Okehampton (Devon) · High Medieval · 300% · Britannia · Catholic. Al-Andalus (Ocsobona) was a main source of Tin for the Islamic world that were exhausted after the Christian occupation Mertola (Ocsobona) · Early Medieval · 100% · Iberia (Muslim) · Muwalladi. Erzgebirge, …

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Iron & Metallurgy

Iron Mines Iron ores were usually open pits, involving mostly rural unspecialized work, performed by anyone and everywhere… All iron mines are new. Scandinavia Dalarna mines (the only one apart from Basque with important excedent). Dalarna called Järnberaland ‘iron-bearing country’ [Graham-Campbell 2011] Mor (Jrnberaland) · High Medieval · 200% · Scandinavia · Catholic. Trondheim iron …

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Copper Mines Northern Europe Falene (Dalabergslagen) – Falun mines Falene (Falun) · High Medieval · 150% · Scandinavia · Catholic. Germania By 12th c. Goslar known as well for copper as for silver; by the 13th c., only known for its copper Goslar (Rammelsberg) · High Medieval · 150% · Germania · Catholic. Central-East Europe …

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Silver Mines Britannia Before 1086 until early 1200s, later low level until 14th c. (cf. Allen TEHR 2011). Represents circle of Carlisle, Cumberland, Durham, Northumbria (all covered in special buildings in Vanilla) Appleby (Tynedale) · High Medieval · 75% · Britannia · Catholic. Francia Melle (Metullum) ca. 9th-11th c. Main (post-)Carolingian mine (another slightly later …

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Gold Mines Byzantium Probably decreased gold production based on lack of late sources, but Byzantium was always rich in gold through trade due to the balance of payments [Spufford 1988]. Polygyros (Siderokausia) · Early Medieval · 100% · Byzantium · Orthodox Malinese mines Ash’ari: main faith exploiting trans-Saharan trade. Mines distributed by period to account …

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